While reading the forum I've noticed that some of you have an interest towards the Finnish culture and bushcraft. One of the perks living near the National Library of Finland is that you've access to every single book ever written in Finnish. The following writing is my understanding of the topic and is based on several dozens of sources. For that reason I have not included a list of sources at the end but I'm ready to sent a full list of sources to anyone if needed. "Traditional" is my definition of things and matters typical to different parts of Finland hundreds of years before Swedish and Western European influence started to penetrate to inner part of the country during the 1500s and 1600s. All of the photographs and drawings are from Suomenmuseotonline.fi service if not otherwise noted. Fire The only primitive technique I've seen records of is the fire plow which was used with the slash and burn until 19th century as a fire started from the plow was though to be sacret by some. A fire striker from 1100s and 1200s to 1800s was either an oval-shaped piece of steel or a bow-shaped one. Typically it could been found hanging from person's belt from a chain. Tinder was made from Fomes fomentarius and was kept in a leather pouch. Fig. 1. Oval shaped fire striker from Western Finland. Dated to 500 - 600 AD. Fig. 2. Fire striker dated to 800 - 1050 AD. Found from Satakunta province. Clothing The oldest domesticated animal remain (cattle) in Finland is carbon-dated to 1300 BC but we can assume that sheep was also known in that period. Oldest piece of (wool) cloth is from the beginning of the 4th century and from that on all evidence show that wool was preferred during the winter as was linen during the summer. Pictorial or literal evidences are scarce before the 1700s but they show that people wore tunics and long trousers until the Western fashion was introduced during the 18th century. Hooded outfits were preferred by seal hunters and hunters. Belts made out of moose were popular people living in more remote areas. As stated before a leather or birch bark pouch was attached to the belt. Typical width was around 1 - 3 centimeters. Belts were also usually decorated with ornaments made out of brass or other metal. Although it is nowadays popular to hang a kuksa (Guksi in Northern Sami) under the belt, the Finns did not use such devices but made a simple lippi from birch bark and a piece of stick. Footwear of leather and birch bark were used during winter and summer, respectively. The oldest and most simple type of birch bark shoe ("löttö") is made from two or three strips of bark. The literature do not tell when these birch bark shoes were invented but oldest findings are from 1200s, I think. Leather shoes belonged to the "moccasin family" familiar to both boreal and arctic areas. These were usually made from two different parts and went up to the ankle. Fig. 3. A hunter from the seal of the city of Brahea from 1669. Notice the axe on the right side and puukko on the left. Fig. 4. A lippi Fig. 5. Löttö from Northern Karelia. Fig. 6. Illustration of "upokas" shoe from Valkjärvi area. Illustration from U. T. Sirelius' book "Suomen kansanomaista kulttuuria: Esineellisen kansatieteen tuloksia II". Puukko Traditional peasant puukkos do not have any kind of bolsters but the tang is fitted inside a block of wood. Kalevala speaks of a handle made out of curly birch and most of the Medieval and older puukkos have a handle made from that wood. The oldest puukko preserved with birch bark handle is from 1831 but the technique is probably much older than that. Originally puukkos were attached to the belt horizontally but the fashion changed to vertically during the Middle Ages. Fig. 7. Oldest known puukko with a birch bark handle.